Lipton Chai Latte – Ingredients & Processing – Pantry Audit
Milk Solids 50%
Milk solids’ refers to the dried powder left after all the water is removed from liquid milk. Another description refers to combined yield of fat and protein in the milk
Unsure what the 50% refers to but may be referring to non-fat milk solids which are often used to give a richer ‘mouth feel’ to low-fat yoghurts, milks and ice creams without adding any fat.
Caution is sometimes recommended in excessive use of these powders
The generalised name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. They are carbohydrates, composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants, but are only present in sufficient concentrations for efficient extraction in sugarcane and sugar beet.
Fruits, vegetables, beans, nuts and whole grains contain simple sugars. When simple sugars are naturally found in whole food, they come with vitamins, minerals, protein, phytochemicals and fibre. The presence of fibre makes a significant difference because it slows down the absorption of sugar, which moderates its impact on blood sugar. When any type of sugar is added to foods during processing, cooking or at the table, you consume calories without any nutrients or fibre. These sugars can increase your risk of gaining weight and of developing Type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) states that there is increasing concern that consumption of free sugars, particularly in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages, may result in an increase in total caloric intake, leading to an unhealthy diet, weight gain and increased risk of noncommunicable diseases. Of particular concern is the role sugar plays in causing dental diseases worldwide.
For an adult at a normal body mass index, or BMI, WHO recommends eating less than 5% of their total daily calories from sugars – which would be around 25 grams of sugar or six teaspoons. That’s less than what is typically found in a single can of regular soda, which contains about 40 grams of sugar.
A fat of vegetable origin that is obtained naturally from plants or by hydrogenation of a vegetable oil. Vegetable fats have been recommended for better health since the mid-1960s when we were asked to replace butter with margarine, and lard with corn and safflower oil in order to lower our cholesterol and reduce our risk of dying of heart disease. By the mid-1970s researchers had discovered margarine raises cholesterol even more than butter, and even though vegetable oils might reduce our risk of heart disease they would greatly increase our risk of cancer, and make us fat.
Erin Richman of the University of California, San Francisco, states vegetable fats contain antioxidants and may reduce inflammation in the body
Vegetable oils contain a very high concentration of Omega 6 fatty acids and polyunsaturated fats, which cause an imbalance of these oils in the body. Omega 6 fats are easily oxidized with heat or light exposure. Since vegetable oils are chemically produced, they usually contain harmful chemicals. Most vegetable oils and their products contain BHA and BHT which are artificial antioxidants that help prevent food from oxidising or spoiling too quickly.
Vegetable oils are extremely damaging to the reproductive system and the developing bodies of unborn babies and children. Excess consumption of vegetable oils also causes problems with hormone production, since hormones are dependent on certain fats for their manufacture. Vegetable oils that are hardened by hydrogenation to make shortening or margarine are especially damaging. Vegetable Oils and their fats should be avoided completely.
Glucose Syrup (from wheat)
A food syrup, made from the hydrolysis of starch. Maize is commonly used as the source of the starch but glucose syrup is also made from other starch crops, including potatoes, wheat, barley rice and cassava. Glucose syrup is used in foods to soften texture, add volume, prevent crystallisation of sugar, and enhance flavour
Glucose syrups are highly processed and purified and therefore contain very little residual gluten
Milk can come from many different species of animal, with cow, sheep, and goat milk being the most popularly consumed. Consuming too much potassium or phosphorus, both of which are high in milk, can be harmful for those whose kidneys are not fully functional. You are unlikely to exceed calcium intake limits with food
As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from mammals during or soon after pregnancy and used as food for humans. In many cultures of the world, especially the Western world, humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other animals as a food product. Initially, the ability to digest milk was limited to children as adults did not produce lactase, an enzyme necessary for digesting the lactose in milk. Milk was therefore converted to curd, cheese and other products to reduce the levels of lactose.
The soybean (US) or soya bean (UK) is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses. The plant is classed as an oilseed rather than a pulse by the UN Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO). For human consumption, soybeans must be cooked with “wet” heat to destroy the trypsin inhibitors. Raw soybeans, including the immature green form, are toxic to humans
Soy is found in a number of food products, though not always listed as “soy.” Following is a list of common soy and soy derivative names. It is by no means an exhaustive list: glycine (amino acid derived from soy); MSG – monosodium glutamate (also known as glutamic acid & derived from various vegetable proteins such as corn or soy); natto (made from fermented soybeans); soy lecithin (emulsifier and supplement derived from soy); soy milk; soy sauce or tamari; Tempeh (made from fermented soybeans); TVP – textured vegetable protein; tocopherols (vitamin E supplement whose natural form comes from soy or wheatgerm); tofu (made from pressed soy milk curds); vegetable oil; vegetable proteins & isolates plus worcestershire sauce – many brands start with a base of soy sauce, some are soy-free
Two senior American government scientists claim that chemicals in a soybean derivative could increase the risk of breast cancer in women, brain damage in men and abnormalities in infants. Daniel Doerge and Daniel Sheehan oppose the US FDA’s decision last year to approve a health claim that soya reduced the risk of heart disease. They wrote an internal protest letter warning of 28 studies revealing toxic effects of soya. It’s not just vegetarian foods such as tofu that use soya. It is a key ingredient in products from meat sausages and fish sticks to salad dressings and breakfast cereals. The concerns of Doerge and fellow FDA researcher Sheehan focus on chemicals in soya known as isoflavones which have effects similar to the female hormone estrogen.
Bruce Fife, a US naturopath, states to eat only fermented soy – which includes soy sauce, miso and tempeh
Instant Tea Powder
Instant tea granules are made by using low pressure to extract liquid from fresh tea leaves. The liquid is then freeze dried to form a powder. According to reports by the USDA, powdered iced tea loses more than ninety percent of its antioxidants when it is processed and some instant teas have almost no antioxidant value, once it is reduced to a powder.
Some instant teas contain artificial sweeteners such as aspartame or large amounts of added sugar. Most also contain preservatives such as BHA to keep the product fresh. Some studies show that BHA can cause cancer.
The tea plant, Camelia sinensis, readily absorbs fluoride from soil and water. All tea contains fluoride, but instant teas, according to tests, may have disturbingly high amounts. Getting too much fluoride over many years can lead to a condition called skeletal fluorosis where fluoride is deposited in bones and joints – leading to chronic bone and joint pain.
It also causes mottling discolouration of the teeth in children.
Mineral salts are inorganic (carbon-free) elements that turn to ash when burned. Of the more than three dozen known minerals, nineteen are necessary for good health. Calcium, Iron and Magnesium are examples of mineral elements.
They are required to regulate the metabolism of the body. They are essential for the healthy growth of organisms and for construction of certain tissues.
Mineral Salts 340
340 covers both potassium phosphates and ammonium phosphates. It is not clear which is being referred to on this product
Ammonium phosphates are listed as “no known adverse effects” but Wikipedia states that ammonium phosphate refers to three different chemical compounds, all of which are formed by the reaction of ammonia with phosphoric acid and that it is the salt of ammonium and phosphate. It is a highly unstable compound. Because of its instability, it is of no commercial value. Most common use is fertiliser
There are also three types of potassium phosphates:
1) Monopotassium phosphate is a potassium salt of phosphoric acid used as an antioxidant synergist, buffer and emulsifier in food. Typical products include sauce and dessert mixes, jelly products.
2) Dipotassium phosphate is a potassium salt of phosphoric acid used as an antioxidant synergist, buffer and emulsifier in food. Typical products include cooked and other cured meats, milk and cream powders, drinking chocolate. Other names: dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate, phosphoric acid dipotassium salt, potassium hydrogen phosphate.
3) Tripotassium phosphate is a potassium salt of phosphoric acid used as an antioxidant synergist, buffer and emulsifier in food. Typical products include cooked and other cured meats, milk and cream powders, drinking chocolate.
NOTE: all four above mention phosphoric acid (as well as some below):
Phosphoric acid is added to food to enhance the antioxidant effects of other compounds present, and also as an acidity regulator. Typical products include carbonated beverages, processed meat, chocolate, fats and oils, beer, jam, sweets. Too much in the diet leads to loss of calcium in bones and onset of osteoporosis. In fizzy drinks it allows more carbon dioxide concentration without bottle burst. Soft drinks, beer, cheese products, snacks, and most processed foods. Other names: orthophosphoric acid.
Phosphoric acid is banned in organic food and drinks.
Phosphoric acid is a highly acidic ingredient in cola drinks, used to offset the extreme sweetness. The way the kidneys excrete it is by bonding it with calcium taken from the bones, which can then leave the bones porous and brittle, and increase the risk of osteoporosis. A study, published in the Archives of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine in 2000, showed that athletic teenage girls who consume cola drinks have been found to have five times the risk of bone fractures of those athletic girls who do not consume cola drinks.
Mineral Salts 341
Again, three types & not specified on product
i) Monocalcium phosphate – available commercially in the anhydrous or monohydrate form. Both forms are used as a leavening acid to replace cream of tartar in foods, ‘straight baking powder’ is a mixture of monocalcium phosphate monohydrate and sodium hydrogen carbonate. Typical products include self-raising flour, baking powder, cake and pastry mixes, cakes and other pastry products, medicines as an antacid and polishing agent in enamels and as baking agent. In some self raising flours. Other names: calcium phosphate, monobasic, monohydrate, calcium tetrahydrogen diorthophosphate.
(ii) Dicalcium phosphate – manufactured from phosphoric acid, dicalcium phosphate is used as an antioxidant in food, an abrasive agent in toothpaste (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate) as well as being a firming agent. Available in the anhydrous or dihydrate forms. Typical products include tinned and packaged fruit deserts, granular food products. Other names: calcium hydrogen orthophosphate, calcium phosphate dibasic.
(iii) Tricalcium phosphate – tricalcium phosphate is found to make up 60% of non-cellular bone structure and 70% of teeth in an average adult. Synthetic tricalcium phosphate is added to table salt, sugar, baking powder and fertilisers to give a ‘free-flowing’ quality. It is prepared from naturally derived calcium phosphate. Typical products include salt, sugar and other granular foods, packet sauce mixes, cake mixes etc. Other names: tricalcium diorthophosphate, calcium phosphate tribasic.
Mineral Salts 452
Salts of sodium / potassium / calcium / ammonium with phosphates. All are produced synthetically from the respective carbonates and phosphoric acid. Used as metal binders, stabiliser and emulsifiers. Also used to retain water during processing and storage. High concentrations of phosphates may disturb several metabolic processes as phosphate plays an important role in general metabolism.
Additives that help two liquids mix – for example, water and oil separate in a glass, but adding an emulsifier will help the liquids mix together. It is commonly used for different foods and drinks. Some examples of emulsifiers are egg yolks and mustard. Examples of emulsions include vinaigrettes, milk and mayonnaise
Closely related to emulsifiers are stabilisers, substances that maintain the emulsified state. The consistency of food products may also be improved by the addition of thickeners, used to add body to sauces and other liquids, and texturisers. This class of additives has a dual purpose: they make food more appetising by improving appearance and consistency, and they extend shelf life
Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids, E471 is a food additive used as an emulsifier. Synthetic fats, produced from glycerol and natural fatty acids are mainly from plant origin but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different products, with a composition similar to partially digested natural fat. For use in baked goods, all types of dairy foods, margarine and ice cream. No known adverse effects.
Citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol. Emulsifier, stabiliser, coating agent, texture modifier, solvent and lubricant. No known adverse effects, but less frequently it may cause diarrhoea, dizziness and mental confusion.
Antioxidant, colour and preservative. Also known as vitamin C, it slows or prevents the oxidative deterioration of foods, such as when fats and oils go rancid. The body stores little vitamin C so this must be provided on a daily basis in the diet. Good sources of vitamin C include citrus fruit, raw cabbage, strawberries and tomatoes. Vitamin C has been shown to prevent scurvy, and is essential for healthy blood vessels, bones, and teeth. Vitamin C also helps form collagen, a protein that holds tissues together.
Ascorbic acid is industrially synthesised using a number of different biological techniques. Added to products as diverse as cured meat, breakfast cereals, frozen fish and wine.
Large doses can cause dental erosion, vomiting, diarrhoea, dizziness, and could possibly cause kidney stones. Advised to be taken under medical advice if suffering from kidney stones, gout or anaemia. Excessive intake can result in a number of conditions which generally defeat the purpose for which it is taken – creating indigestion or diarrhoea (especially on an empty stomach), skin rashes, fatigue, nausea, vomiting and a host of other reactions. Other names: l-ascorbic acid, l,3-ketothreohexuronic acid.
A naturally occurring organic compound with antioxidant properties. Note: The distinction between organic and inorganic carbon compounds, while useful in organising the vast subject of chemistry, is somewhat arbitrary
Colour – Beta Carotene
A strongly coloured red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits. It is an organic compound and chemically is classified as a hydrocarbon. It is a member of the carotenes. Among this general class of carotenes, b-carotene is distinguished by having beta-rings at both ends of the molecule. Absorption of b-carotene is enhanced if eaten with fats, as carotenes are fat soluble.
As beta carotene is said to be a precursor of vitamin A, intake of foods rich in beta carotene is considered necessary for preventing eye problems.
Chronic high doses of beta-carotene from food sources – the equivalent of eating more than 2 pounds of carrots per day – can cause yellowing of the skin and nails. These changes are reversible and pose no significant or long-term health risks. Beta-carotene supplementation, on the other hand, may have some negative effects.
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